Oral alcohol self-administration and maintenance of operant behavior in rats

In recent years, researchers have developed experimental models of oral self-administration of alcohol to study the effects of different variables on alcohol consumption in rats (Linseman, 1987; Tabakoff & Hoffman, 2000). According to Kamenetzky and Mustaca (2005), home cage and operant conditioning models are the two main forms of self-administration of alcohol in animals. The main difference between both models is the behavioral requirement established to have access to alcohol. In two cases the animal controls the temporal pattern of intake and dose.


Comparing Models of Intertemporal Choice: Fitting Data from Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats

Choices between consequences separated in time (intertemporal choice) are faced every day by humans and nonhuman animals in a variety of settings, attracting the attention of research in economics (Frederick, Loewenstein, & O’Donoghue, 2002), cognitive neuroscience (Peters & Buchel, 2011; Sellitto, Giaramelli, & di Pellegrino, 2011), and psychology (Green & Myerson, 2004).  In this research, the term delay discounting refers to the phenomenon that humans and nonhuman animals discount the value of reinforcers over time (Miedl, Peters, & Buchel, 2012).  For examp


Positive Automaintenance in SHR and WKY Rats

Aparicio, C. F., & Mario, C. J.. (2014). Positive Automaintenance in SHR and WKY Rats. Conductual, 2(3), 17-35. presented at the 01/12/2014.

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been compared with the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat when developing rodent models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Sagvolden, 2000). The rationale for this research is that the SHR behaves in ways that are similar to those observed in humans diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who typically show inability to pay attention and increased impulsivity in decision making tasks (Adriani, Caprioli, Granstrem, Carli, and Laviola, 2003).


Allocation of behavior in a simple discrimination task

Camacho-Candia, J. A., & Cabrera, F.. (2014). Allocation of behavior in a simple discrimination task. Conductual, 2(3), 4-16. presented at the 01/12/2014.

Stimulus control has been defined as the change in some response characteristic as a function of the change in a property of a stimulus (Rilling, 1977; Terrace, 1966). The most widely dependent variable used in stimulus-control studies is the change in rate or probability in which the target response occurs. Thus, when differential responding is found in an organism facing different stimuli, then a stimulus control is accomplished.


Adquisición y extinción de respuestas discretas vs secuencias de respuestas

Cuando Skinner (1935) definió la operante como una relación de triple contingencia entre estímulos, respuestas y consecuencias, definió a la unidad de respuesta como una clase funcional de eventos controlados por estímulos reforzantes. Para facilitar un registro confiable de esta unidad conductual se eligió una respuesta discreta, operacionalmente definida como el cierre de un microswitch, como se observa en las respuestas de presionar una palanca o picar una tecla.


Impulsive Choice in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats

Aparicio, C. F., Hughes, C. E., & Pitts, R. C.. (2013). Impulsive Choice in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats. Conductual, 1(3), 22-46. presented at the 01/12/2013.

Delay discounting refers to the process by which a delay between behavior and its consequences diminishes the effectiveness, or “value,” of those consequences.  Delay discounting appears to play an important role in a variety of behavior patterns often described as “impulsive” and, thus, this process has received considerable attention recently (see Madden & Bickel, 2010).  Non-human animal models have been particularly useful in characterizing delay discounting, and in examining variables that affect impulsive choice.  In the basic experimental arrangement with non-human


Efectos diferenciales de los intervalos de retención en una tarea de discriminación de secuencias temporales

En un esfuerzo por identificar las propiedades básicas de la memoria de trabajo separada del aprendizaje y la cultura, varios investigadores a menudo han realizado investigaciones con animales. La facilidad con que las palomas adquieren discriminaciones condicionales o igualaciones a la muestra simbólica demorada (véase Roberts, 1998) las ha hecho una especie favorecida para estudiar la memoria de trabajo, sin embargo la tarea ha sido ampliamente estudiada también en ratas (Bueno & Bueno-Júnior, 2011; Gibbon, Malapani, Dale & Gallistel, 1997; Meck & Church, 1982).