Aún cuando un importante número de investigaciones destacan la importancia del estudio de las reglas en el campo clínico, existe una falta de estudios sobre las reglas emitidas por el terapeuta a lo largo del proceso terapéutico. Por un lado, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el cambio del tipo de regla de acuerdo a los distintos momentos de la terapia y, por otro, si el grado de experiencia supone una variable que afecta a este cambio. Se analizaron las reglas emitidas en terapia por dos terapeutas, uno experto y otro inexperto, en dos casos completos con la misma problemática. Las reglas se categorizaron de acuerdo al sistema de categorías SISC-REGLAS-T. Ambos terapeutas cambiaron el tipo de regla de acuerdo a distintos momentos de la terapia, sin embargo, el terapeuta experto parece adaptar el tipo de regla de acuerdo a las distintas tareas y objetivos terapéuticos que se persiguen en distintos momentos del proceso clínico.
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been compared with the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat when developing rodent models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Between-strain differences in response acquisition have been attributed to deficits in attention in the former but not the latter strain. However, conflicting results have been obtained by research that examined differences in the acquisition of lever-pressing between SHR and WKY rats. This raises the possibility that impulsivity, rather than deficits of attention, is the mechanism accounting for differences between strains. The present study used Williams and Williams’ (1969) positive automaintenance procedure to examine lever-pressing acquisition in SHR and WKY rats. In addition, possible strain differences in the maintenance of that behavior were examined using a concurrent-chains procedure. Results of the former procedure showed retarded acquisition of lever-pressing in the WKY rats when compared to the SHRs, suggesting differences in impulsivity between strains. Results of latter procedure showed no differences in the maintenance of lever-pressing between strains, nor were there differences in preference across conditions. These results have implications for the development of rodent models of ADHD using SHR and WKY rats as subjects.
Eight rats responded for food in a discrete-trial discrimination procedure (Go/No-go discrimination task). The subjects' head entries to the feeder were reinforced whenever the discriminative stimuli ('Go' signal) were illuminated. Two lights located at opposite sides of the experimental chamber served as discriminative stimuli, and the 'No-go' component was signaled by a time-out (TO) of variable durations. The subjects' global responding in the discrimination task were described at different levels of analysis, as well as the distribution of other behaviors during the 'No-go' periods. Each of eight subjects learned to differentially respond to stimuli, showing short latencies from the S+ onset; nevertheless, commission errors differed among subjects. The video-recording analysis revealed that the time-allocation of other behaviors diverged among subjects. Specifically, the subjects with numerous commission errors engaged less time in alternative activities (i.e. nosing the floor) than did the subjects with less commission errors. Findings suggest that in a simple discrimination task, the allocation of activities are relevant to a comprehensive understanding of stimulus control and relative phenomena such as behavioral contrast.